July 13, 2024

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Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 – Basic Facts That You Need to Know

2 min read

Have you been diagnosed to have type 2 diabetes?, then you need to know the facts. Type 2 diabetes also known as Non insulin dependent diabetesNIDDMor adult onset diabetes accounts for 80% of diabetes mellitus worldwide.

Characteristics

* Adult age of onset, it usually starts around the age of 18 years and above
* The number of cases increase with age and obesity
* It has a gradual onset of appearance , it is due to relative insulin deficiency caused by either insufficient secretion of insulin by the pancreas or by the inability of the body cells to respond adequately to the insulin in the bodyinsulin resistance
* It is not prone to the development of a serious acute complication of diabetes called ketosis which causes loss of consciousness and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

Symptoms

Poluria-excessive urination
Polydipsia-excessive thirst
Increasing body weakness
Blurred vision
Weight loss
Itching around the genitals mainly
Abnormal sensation in the legs like numbness, pain, burning feet
Slowly healing ulcer or non healing ulcer
Erection problems in men

Signs
Signs are not specific and they are due to complications which may be chronic or acute

Management
* Diet modification, a diabetic should eat a balanced diet. Nil consumption of refined sugar, daily diet should consist of:

Low fat, less than 20% of daily calories
High fibre carbohydrate around 80% of daily calorie intake
Adequate protein, about 20% of daily calorie intake

* Exercise – At least 30 minutes of brisk walking is recommended. There should be less than 10 hours per week spent on watching television and sitting idle in one place. If you are diabetic you should walk rather than drive all the time especially when trying to cover short distances. Sedentary lifestyle is strongly discouraged.

* Drug management – There are different classes of drugs or group of drugs used in managing type 2 diabetes.

Sufonylureas: these drugs require a functioning pancreas for them to work. They can be used in combination with other drugs.
Biguanides: They improve insulin sensitivity in the body cells and reduce vascular complications particularly in obese people.

They enhance weight reduction and they can also be used in combination with other drugs.

Although type 2 diabetes is the commonest type of diabetes,there are some other very important types.

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